Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event can lead to PTSD. Examples include childhood neglect or abuse, domestic violence, a violent event such as rape, an accident, military combat, terrorism as well as emotional and physical abuse, illness and complex grief. 

PTSD may be a cause of relapse if left untreated.

Alcohol and drugs are often abused as a coping mechanism following psychological symptoms of trauma and PTSD may be a cause of relapse if left untreated.

PTSD symptoms include:

  • Flashbacks
  • Emotional instability and mood swings
  • Nightmares
  • Sleep disturbance
  • Anxiety
  • Numbing
  • Avoidance of anything that reminds the person of the trauma
  • Hyperarousal
  • Hypervigilance.